As an integral engineering structure, the railway track is laid on the roadbed, which plays a guiding role in the operation of the train, and directly bears the huge pressure of rolling stock and its load. Under the power of train operation, its various components must have sufficient strength and stability to ensure that the train runs smoothly and uninterrupted at the specified speed.
On the one hand, the steel rail on the railway track supports and guides the wheels of the train, directly bears the force from the wheels and other forces and transmits them to the rail sleepers, as well as the surface where the rolling of the train wheels provides resistance; on the other hand, in the electrified railway or The section is automatically blocked, and the steel rail also functions as a track circuit. Therefore, in order to achieve such application effects, railway rails must have sufficient strength, toughness and wear resistance. The cross-sectional shape of the railway rail is an I-shape, which is composed of three parts: the rail head, the rail waist, and the rail bottom. Steel rail has good stress, material saving, and resistance to deformation.